1. Introduction
  2. Structure
  3. Packaging
  4. Logging
  5. Configuration
  6. Debugging EXEs
  7. Handling errors
  8. Testing
  9. Documentation
  10. Make
  11. Providing help
  12. Scheduled Tasks
  13. Windows Services
  14. Windows Event Log
  15. Windows Registry
  16. Creating SetUp.exe
  17. Regular Expressions
  18. Acre
  19. GUI
  20. Git


  1. Windows environment vars
  2. User commands
  3. aplcores & WS integrity
  4. Development environment
  5. Special characters


The following assumes ⎕IO←1.

The following contains everything you need to know about those characters.

Character ⎕ML<3 ⎕ML≥3 Escaping ⎕UCS Abbr. Hex
Carriage return ⎕TC[3] ⎕TC[2] \r 13 CR 0x0D
New line [1] ⎕TC[2] ⎕TC[3] \n 10 LF,NL 0x0A
Form feed n/a n/a \f 12 FF 0x0D

The following table contains everything you need to know about how different operating systems make use of line-ending characters.

OS Lines end
Windows CR,LF
Linux & Unix NL
Old Macs[2] CR

Strictly speaking, a file should always end with such characters. However, for example under Windows even different software packages from Microsoft handle this differently.


  1. Was “linefeed” in the old days.

  2. Before OS X